Civil Society to United Nations: International community must take action against police brutality and systematic racism

In International Advocacy Program by CIHRS

In a letter to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Ms. Michelle Bachelet, over  270 civil society organizations from around the world, and 171 families of victims of police violence, called on her to support the establishment of an independent inquiry into police violence and provide recommendations for a national plan of action to address systemic racism and racial discrimination in the United States. In a second letter addressed to the African delegations of the United Nations, the organizations urged the governments to continue their critical engagement and ensure that the Council establishes a mechanism to investigate systemic racism in law enforcement.

H.E. Michelle Bachelet
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Palais Wilson
52 rue des Pâquis CH-1201 Geneva, Switzerland
10 May 2021
Re: The UN Human Rights Council’s role to ensure effective accountability and follow-up to HRC Resolution 43/1

Dear High Commissioner,

The families of victims of police violence and undersigned civil society organizations write with regard to the implementation of Human Rights Council resolution (A/HRC/43/1) on the promotion and protection of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of Africans and of people of African descent against systemic racism, excessive use of force and other human rights violations by law enforcement officers.

We appreciate your response to our calls, in particular your affirmation to the Council that the report will reflect and amplify the voices of victims who are people of African descent, their families and communities. We also welcome that the report will examine the root causes that have enabled systemic racism and police violence, including the legacies of enslavement, the transatlantic trade in enslaved Africans, and its context of colonialism. We appreciate the broad outreach to civil society and the organization of several regional and national-level consultations over the past months and your recognition of the indispensable role of civil society in the process of preparing the report.

As you rightly stated in your update to the Council, we cannot let the urgency felt in the Council in June 2020 subside. We share your assessment that the Council “can contribute to making this moment a critical turning point in the respect and protection of the human rights of people of African descent.”

In light of your update to the Council that the report will “recommend an agenda for transformative change to dismantle systemic racism and police brutality against Africans and people of African descent, and to advance accountability and redress for victims”, we wish to make the following recommendations and suggestions regarding the Council’s role to ensure effective accountability and follow-up. While we appreciate that the call for inputs reflected many of our recommendations, we note that it did not include a specific question on the Council’s role in this regard.

The families of victims of police violence and many of our organizations have called on the Council to mandate an independent inquiry into the killings and violent law enforcement responses to protests, including the attacks against protesters and journalists in the United States. The Special Procedures strongly urged the Council to establish a commission of inquiry to “investigate systemic racism in law enforcement in the United States” and a “thematic commission of inquiry or other mechanism empowered to investigate systemic racism in law enforcement globally, especially where it is related to legacies of colonialism and transatlantic slavery.”

While we commend the Biden administration for leading a cross-regional joint statement on countering racism and signaling other policy changes to address racial inequities, we believe that a robust international accountability mechanism would further support and complement, not undermine, efforts to dismantle systemic racism in the United States, especially in the context of police violence against people of African descent.

Police in the United States kill nearly 1,000 people every year. The epidemic of police violence has been directly and disproportionately targeted at people of color. Indigenous People and people of African descent experience the highest rates of fatal police shootings, followed by Latinx people. For example, in 2019, Black and Indigenous people were approximately three times more likely than white people to be fatally shot by police. One study found that young unarmed male victims of deadly force by police are 13 times more likely to be Black than white. Stunningly, for young men of color, police use of force is now among the leading causes of death. While there is a dearth of research examining racial disparities in police killings among non-male and nonbinary populations, some data indicates that although women are less likely than men to be killed by police overall, Black women and Indigenous women are more likely to be killed by police than white women. Furthermore, while police killings are higher in high- poverty areas than low-poverty areas for all racial groups, Black people who live in more affluent areas are almost as likely to be killed by police as white people who live in the poorest areas.

Although exact statistics are difficult to find, more often than not, officers are not investigated or prosecuted for the killings of civilians. 98.3 percent of killings by police from 2013- 2020 have not resulted in officers being charged with a crime. Between 2005 and 2015, only 54 officers were charged after police-involved killings, despite the thousands of such incidents that occurred over the same time period. Impunity for police killings in the United States, especially those of people of African descent, continues unabated despite the recent settlement in the George Floyd civil lawsuit and the guilty verdict against Derek Chauvin, the Minneapolis City police officer who murdered him. Furthermore, federalism in the United States, long-standing legal obstacles to achieving justice for police killings, and decentralized police institutions of over 18,000 law enforcement agencies (that are not directly accountable to the federal Executive Branch) make it extremely daunting to end impunity, even for well-intentioned federal Administrations.

We recall that the original draft resolution called on the Council to establish these mechanisms; however, the Council adopted a watered-down resolution due to enormous diplomatic pressure from the United States under the Trump administration and other allied countries.

We urge you to support the calls made by victims’ families, civil society and Special Procedures by including in the report specific recommendations to the Council in this regard. We also urge you to remind Member States that the transatlantic slave trade and colonialism were grave violations of international law that require States to make reparations proportionate to the harms committed and to ensure that structures in the society that are perpetuating the injustices of the past are transformed. Furthermore, we urge you to call on Member States to adopt a national plan of action to eliminate systemic racism and racial discrimination and to double their efforts and allocation of resources to achieve racial equality including through the adoption of reparations schemes to remedy historic racial injustices.

Please accept our sincerest gratitude and appreciation for the enormous work you do each day as the world’s collective human rights conscience.

Sincerly,

(Find Below)


To: Ministers of Foreign Affairs of African States
CC: Permanent Representatives of African States in Geneva
10 May 2021
Re: The UN Human Rights Council’s role to ensure effective accountability and follow-up to HRC Resolution 43/1

Dear Excellencies,

The families of victims of police violence and undersigned civil society organizations write with regard to the follow up to Human Rights Council resolution (A/HRC/43/1) on “the promotion and protection of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of Africans and of people of African descent against excessive use of force and other human rights violations by law enforcement officers.”

We appreciate your governments’ leadership at the Council and your support to the demands made by victims’ families, civil society organizations, and Special Procedures in the context of the urgent debate on the “current racially inspired human rights violations, systemic racism, police brutality and violence against peaceful protests”. We urge your governments to continue supporting these demands in the follow up resolution at the 47th session of the Council.

During her first oral update, the UN High Commissioner affirmed to the Council that the report will reflect and amplify the voices of victims of people of African descent, their families, and communities. She also affirmed that the report will examine the root causes that have enabled systemic racism and police violence including the legacies of enslavement, the transatlantic trade of enslaved Africans, and its context of colonialism.

We share the High Commissioner’s assessment that we cannot let the urgency felt in the Council in June 2020 subside, and that the Council “can contribute to making this moment a critical turning point in the respect and protection of the human rights of people of African descent.”

We consider that the Council’s role on these issues should not end with the presentation of the final report at the 47th session, but rather should maintain its engagement. We wish to make the following recommendations and suggestions regarding the Council’s role to ensure effective accountability and follow-up.

The families of victims of police violence and many of our organizations have called on the Council to mandate an independent inquiry into the killings and violent law enforcement responses to protests, including the attacks against protesters and journalists in the United States. The Special Procedures strongly urged the Council to establish a commission of inquiry to “investigate systemic racism in law enforcement in the United States”.

While we commend the Biden administration for leading a cross-regional joint statement on countering racism and signaling other policy changes to address racial inequities, we believe that a robust international accountability mechanism would further support and complement, not undermine, efforts to dismantle systemic racism in the United States, especially in the context of police violence against people of African descent.

Police in the United States kill nearly 1,000 people every year. The epidemic of police violence has been directly and disproportionately targeted at people of color. Indigenous People and people of African descent experience the highest rates of fatal police shootings, followed by Latinx people. For example, in 2019, Black and Indigenous people were approximately three times more likely than white people to be fatally shot by police. One study found that young unarmed male victims of deadly force by police are 13 times more likely to be Black than white. Stunningly, for young men of color, police use of force is now among the leading causes of death. While there is a dearth of research examining racial disparities in police killings among non-male and nonbinary populations, some data indicates that although women are less likely than men to be killed by police overall, Black women and Indigenous women are more likely to be killed by police than white women. Furthermore, while police killings are higher in high- poverty areas than low-poverty areas for all racial groups, Black people who live in more affluent areas are almost as likely to be killed by police as white people who live in the poorest areas.

Although exact statistics are difficult to find, more often than not, officers are not investigated or prosecuted for the killings of civilians. 98.3 percent of killings by police from 2013- 2020 have not resulted in officers being charged with a crime. Between 2005 and 2015, only 54 officers were charged after police-involved killings, despite the thousands of such incidents that occurred over the same time period. Impunity for police killings in the United States, especially those of people of African descent, continues unabated despite the recent settlement in the George Floyd civil lawsuit and the guilty verdict against Derek Chauvin, the Minneapolis City police officer who murdered him. Furthermore, federalism in the United States, long-standing legal obstacles to achieving justice for police killings, and decentralized police institutions of over 18,000 law enforcement agencies (that are not directly accountable to the federal Executive Branch) make it extremely daunting to end impunity, even for well- intentioned federal Administrations.

Systemic racism in law enforcement globally also requires thematic engagement by the Council. The Special Procedures urged the Council to take action to address the issue of systemic racism in law enforcement against people of African descent and others, that is of genuine concern in many parts of the world. In this regard, they strongly urged the Council to establish a “thematic commission of inquiry or other mechanism empowered to investigate systemic racism in law enforcement globally, especially where it is related to legacies of colonialism and transatlantic slavery” and stressed that both measures are necessary and cannot be substituted for one another.

We recall that the original draft resolution proposed by the African Group called on the Council to establish these mechanisms; however, the Council adopted a watered-down resolution due to enormous diplomatic pressure from the United States under the Trump Administration and other allied countries.

We acknowledge the existence of a number of relevant mechanisms established by the Council, and we consider that the current context provides an opportunity to review them and strengthen the effectiveness of the Council’s work against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related forms of intolerance.

As we celebrate the 20th Anniversary of the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and its outcome documents, (The Durban Declaration and Programme of Action), we urge your governments to continue your critical engagement on these issues and ensure that at its 47th session, the Council establishes the above- mentioned mechanisms and mandates the requisite resources to actually make a difference in the lives of the millions of people in the United States and around the world who are subject to systemic racism especially in the context of violence by law enforcement.

Sincerely,

The Families of the Victims of Police Brutality, by year that they lost their loved one:

2021

The Family of Daunte Wright, killed by Brooklyn Center, MN Police Kenisha Kinard, son Daverion Kinard killed by Fontana, CA Police
Melody S. Cooper, son Kwamena Appah Fynn Ocran, killed by Gaithersburg, MD Police

2020

Philonise Floyd & Quincy Mason, brother & father George Floyd killed by Minneapolis, MN Police
Addie Kitchen, son Steven DeMarco Taylor killed by San Leandro, CA Police Adrienne Moore, son Derick Lamar Powe, killed by Daphne, AL Police
Amy Fizer, daughter Hannah Renee Fizer killed by Pettis County, MO Police
Cathy Denise Legato, son Anthony Legato killed by Pine County, MN Sheriff
Jeannie Williams, son John Henry Ross II killed by Harrisonburg City Police, Rockingham County VA Sheriffs, and VA State Police
Paula Watson Livingstone, son Timothy Darryl Sides Jr. killed by Caldwell County, NC Sheriff

2019

Deborah Sanchez, daughter Jorden Marie Simms died in Graham County, AZ Police custody Desiree Lauren, son Sterling Humbert killed by Carrollton, TX Police
Donna Marie Martin, brother Andre Cartel Gladen killed by Portland Oregon, Police Irma Woodard-Duncklee, son Michael Lee Duncklee killed by Tucson, AZ Police Joanne Rojas, son Josiah Pinner killed by Hillsborough County, FL Sheriff
Kim Vaughn, former husband Mohammad Isaifan killed by Akron, OH Police Lisa Finch, daughter Adelina Finch killed by Wichita, KS Police
Roxane Johnson, son Jamaal K. Byrd died in Washington, DC Police custody Tammie Atchison Featherstone, nephew Jimmy Atchison killed by Atlanta, GA Police Toni Biegert, son Joseph R. Biegert killed by Green Bay, WI Police
Trena & Quiana Miller, son TreShun Miller killed by Arlington, TX Police

2018

Azucena Albrethsen, son Jacob E. Albrethsen killed by Orem Police
Barbara Okamoto, grandson Christopher A. Okamoto killed by Bakersfield, CA Police Bernice Roundtree, son Charles Roundtree Jr. killed by San Antonio Police
Catherine Young, son D’Quan Young killed by Washington DC Police
Denise Price, son Jeffrey Price Jr. killed in collision with Washington, DC Police Iris E. Salazar, daughter Leslie Salazar killed by Austin, TX Police
Karla Gonsalez, son Agustin A. Gonsalez killed by Hayward, CA Police
Lisa Vargas, son Anthony Daniel Vargas killed by Los Angeles County, CA Sheriff’s Deputies Sabrina Passalaqua Courtroul, son Tommy Henley killed by Westminster, CO Police
Tessa Andrews-Biele, son Keaton James Larson killed by Stillwater, MN Police Tiffany Simpson, son Logan Simpson killed by Bixby, OK Police
Tynesha Renee Tilson, son Shali Vladimir Francis Tilson killed by Rockdale, GA Sheriff

2017

Aaron Heather Nordin, brother Jason Fanning killed by St. Joseph Police Angelique Negroni-Kearse, husband Andrew Kearse killed by Schenectady Police Ann Cortez, son Santino Trevino II killed by Los Angeles, CA Police
Annice Evans, son Angel Ramos killed by Vallejo, CA Police
Candance Gipp, brother G. Ryan Gipp Jr. killed by Standing Rock Police Department Christine Ann Amaro & Marissa Barrera, son & brother Michael Anthony Barrera killed by Woodland, CA Police
Constance Joann McGuire, Tavaris Khalil McGuire killed by Kokomo Police Cynthia Brown, nephew Kareen Ali Nadir Jones killed by Columbus, OH Police Denise Fanning, son Jason Fanning killed by St. Joseph, MO Police
Dionne Burney, son Ke’Sharn Burney killed by Harrison, OH Police Task Force
Donna Chisesi, son Jonathan David Victor killed by Baldwin County, AL Sheriff’s Office
Gina Torres, son Isaiah Hammett killed by St. Louis City SWAT/ St. Louis, MO Police James & Kelly Ghaisar, son Bijan Ghaisar killed by Park Police in Northern Virginia Kathy Scott-Lykes, son Jarvis Lykes killed by Georgia State Troopers
Katrina Johnson, cousin Charleena Lyles killed by Seattle, WA Police Kimberly Handy-Jones, son Cordale Q. Handy, killed by St. Paul, MN Police
Krystal Wagner, son Shane Allen Jensen killed by Iowa Department of Natural Resources Lethia Kizer, son Darrion Barnhill, killed by Henderson County, TN Police
Lisa Finch, son Andrew Finch killed by Wichita, KS Police
Marion Jones-Tamba, son Tyler J. Lee killed by Dekalb County Police
Mary ‘Theresa’ Wynne, son Dominique Tyrell White killed by Topeka, KS Police Natasha Manning, son Arties Manning III killed by New Orleans, LA Police Pochya Mifflin, son Cedric Jamal Mifflin killed by Phenix City, AL Police
Rosie Chavez, nephew Jacob Dominguez killed by San Jose Police
Shae Powell, son James Daniel Jill killed by Arapahoe County Sheriff Department Tiffany Tabares, son Dillan Tabares killed by Huntington Beach, CA Police Valerie Rivera, son Eric Rivera killed by Los Angeles, CA Police Department Vanessa Moore, son Hayden Stutz killed by Canton, OH Police

2016

Adrienne Hood, son Henry Green killed by Columbus, OH Police
Alice Corley, son Lionel Vincent Gibson Jr. killed by Long Beach, CA Police Ayanna Johnson, son Darius Wimberly killed by Bent Harbor, MI Police
Cruz Weick, son Sergio Daniel Weick killed by Vista, CA Sheriff’s Department Dalphine Jabril Robinson, son Jabril B. Robinson killed by Clayton County, GA Police Emily Gonzales, son Jordan Love killed by Corpus Christi, TX Police
Felicia Thomas, son Nicholas Thomas killed by Smyrna, GA Police Heather Boland, cousin Bodhi Phelps killed by Gresham, OR Police
Irene Kalonji, son Christopher Kalonji killed by Clackamas, OR Sheriffs & Officers Jacqueline Minifield-Brown, son D’Londre Minifield killed by Winchester, VA Police Kia Villarreal, husband Francisco Villarreal killed by Bakersfield, CA Police
Kim Thomas, son Earl Shaleek Pickney killed by Harrisburg, PA Police
Kristina Murphy, husband Christopher Murphy killed by Woodland, CA Highway Patrol Laura Marquez, son in law Albert B. Thompson killed by Ceres, CA Police
Lorenza Olivares, son Elias Portillo killed by Dallas, TX Police
Monteria Robinson, son Jamarion Robinson killed by Atlanta, GA Police
Pattie Gonzalez, Lulu & Marissa Valenzuela-Ronquillo, and Marie Confinco, husband and nephew Fermin Vincent Valenzuela killed by Anaheim, CA Police
Rhanda Dormeus, daughter Korryn Gaines killed by Baltimore, MD Police Sandy Sanchez, son Anthony Nunez killed by San Jose, CA Police
Vicki Timpa, son Tony Timpa killed by Dallas, TX Police

2015

Annemarie Grant, brother Thomas Purdy killed by Washoe County Sheriffs & Reno Police Beverly Smith, son Alonzo Smith, killed by Special Police Officers in Washington, D.C. Diane Guilford Humphreys, son Deven Guilford killed by Eaton County, MI Sheriff Department
Dominic Archibald, son Nathaniel Pickett II killed by San Bernardino County, CA Sheriff Dorothy Osteen, son Bertrand Davis killed by Dallas, TX Police
Greg & Tammy Dyksma, son Nicholas Dyksma killed by Harris County, GA Deputy Holly Galbraith Hester, son Delaney Hester beaten by Keller, TX Police
Holly Quigley-Papke, son Patrick Wetter killed by Stockton, CA Police Judy Alderman Edens, son Jason Alderman killed by Bakersfield Police Kimberly Davis, son Kimoni Davis killed by Hanging Rock, OH Police LaToya Howell, son Justus Howell killed by Zion, IL Police
Lynn Eagle Feather, son Paul Castaway killed by Denver, CO Police Department Pamela Fields, cousin Derrick Hunt killed by Long Beach, CA Police
Sarah Fitch, son Samuel Toshiro Smith killed by Seattle, WA Police
Sharon Irwin, grandson Tony Terrell Robinson, killed by Madison, WI Police Sheila Banks, godson Corey Jones killed by Palm Beach Gardens, FL Police Officer Stephanie Babb, brother Captain Brian Avon Babb killed by Eugene, OR Police Tania Hudson, son Deaunte Bell killed by Columbus, OH Police
Tina Taylor, son Christian Taylor killed by Arlington, TX Police

2014

Cheryl and Deborah Jones, son and nephew Marquise Jones killed by San Antonio, TX Police Deanna Joseph, son Andrew Joseph III killed by Hillsborough County Sheriff Tampa, FL Denise Rankin, son DaRon Gaylor Jr. killed by Flint, MI Police
Dorothy Holmes, son Ronald Johnson III killed by Chicago, IL Police Gina Thayne, nephew Dillon Taylor killed by Salt Lake City Police Isabelle Padilla, son Joseph Valverde killed by Denver, CO Police Janet Baker, son Jordan Baker killed by Houston, TX Police
Jindia Blount, brother Juan May killed by Arlington, TX Police
Kathy Roberts Gaynier, son Andrew Gaynier killed by Dallas, TX Police
Laurie Valdez, partner Antonio Guzman Lopez killed by San Jose State, CA Police Letty DeLarosa, son James DeLarosa killed by Bakersfield, CA Police
Lisa Mays-Parramore, son Kelvin Mays killed by Garland, TX Police Maria Hamilton, son Dontre D. Hamilton, killed by Milwaukee, WI Police Mary Wilsey, son Keith Vidal killed by Southport, NC Sheriff Department
Michael Brown Sr. & Lezley McSpadden, son Michael Brown Jr. killed by Ferguson, MO Police
Pamela Brooks, son Amir De’Mani Brooks killed by Prince George’s County Police Pamela Fields, nephew Donte Parker killed by San Bernardino County Sheriff
Patricia L. & Richard Perez, grandson Richard Pedro Perez III, killed by Richman, CA Police Shirley & Sean Harrison, son & brother Jason Harrison killed by Dallas, TX Police Department Syreeta Myers, son VonDerrit Myers Jr. killed by St. Louis, MO Police
Tressa Sherrod, son John H. Crawford III killed by Beavercreek, OH Police Vanessa White, son Victor White III killed by Iberia Parish, LA Sheriff Department
Vickie McNeill Williams, son Tinoris Williams killed by Palm Beach County, FL Sheriff Department

2013

Chantell Brooks, son Michael Westley killed by Chicago, IL Police
Collette Flanagan, son Clinton Allen killed by Dallas, TX Police Jenette Munoz, brother Salvador Munoz killed by Dallas, TX Police Kristine Rose, son Jessie Rose killed by Utica, NY Police
Mary Wills, son Taylor Thompson killed by Escambia County, FL Sheriff
Milca Perez & Gerardo Pineda Sr., son Gerardo Pineda Jr. killed by Dallas, TX Police Montye A. Benjamin, son Jayvis L. Benjamin killed by Avondale Estate Police, Decatur, GA Murlene Spinks, son Anthony Skeaton killed in Placer County Jail
Pamela Fields, son Donte Jordan killed by Long Beach, CA Police
Royce Eckley, son Marcus Anthony Merritt Sr. killed by Louisiana State Police Susana Lopez, son DeAngelo Lopez killed by Compton, CA Sheriff Department Tawanda Jones, brother Tyrone West killed by Baltimore, MD Police
Toni Taylor, son Cary Ball Jr. killed by St. Louis, MO Police
Tyann Lavonne Salgardo, son Derek Brown killed by Tennessee State Troopers Val Greenoak, son Jesse Hamilton killed by Santa Rosa Police Department
Valarie Carey, sister Miriam Carey killed by U.S. Secret Service & Capital Police in Washington D.C.
Virginia Bradford, son Fred Bradford killed by Dallas, TX Police

2012

Amalia Villafane, son Sebastian Gregory shot 6 times by Miami-Dade County, FL Police Ashley Harper, brother James Harper killed by Dallas, TX Police
Cynthia Mitchell, son Mario Romero killed by Vallejo, CA Police Genevieve A. Huizar, son Manuel Diaz killed by Anaheim, CA Police Jeralynn Brown-Blueford, son Alan Blueford killed by Oakland, CA Police
Krissy Johnson, father Inzer Allen Johnson killed by Rainbow City, AL Police
Lydia and Richard Adams, son Seth Issac Adams killed by Palm Beach, FL Sheriff Department Martinez Sutton, sister Rekia Boyd killed by off-duty Chicago, IL Detective
Yolanda McNair, daughter Adaisha Miller killed by off-duty Detroit, MI Police

2011

Anita Harris, grandson Dawntrae Ta’Shawn Williams killed by Gwinnett City, GA Police Anita Willis, grandson Kerry Baxter killed by Oakland, CA Police
Bridzette Lane, son Ralphael Briscoe killed by Washington DC Police Jean Thaxton, son Michael Lee Nida II killed by Downey, CA Police

2000-2010

Alicia Alvarez, son Johnathan Cuevas killed by Los Angeles, CA Sheriff’s Department, 2010 Dionne Smith, son James Rivera Jr. killed by Stockton, CA Police, 2010
Theresa Smith, son Caesar Cruz killed by Anaheim, CA Police, 2009
Wanda Johnson, son Oscar Grant killed by BART Police in Oakland, CA, 2009 Darlene Cain, son Dale Graham killed by Baltimore, MD Police, 2008
Lola Jones, son Derrick Jones killed by Dallas, TX Police, 2008
Alicia Kirkman, son Angelo Miller killed by Cleveland, OH Police, 2007
Antoinette Washington, son Brandon Washington killed by Dallas, TX Police, 2007 Corie Angle Cline, brother Joe Whitehouse killed by Anaheim, CA Police, 2007 Sandra Lane, nephew Bobby Walker killed by Dallas, TX Police, 2007
Theresa James, partner Jay Martin Murphy Sr. killed by Albuquerque, NM Police, 2007 Verbena Hawkins, son Trinton Hawkins killed by Dallas, TX Police, 2007
Greta Willis, son Kevin L. Cooper killed by Baltimore City police, 2006
Kat Espinosa, son Asa Benjamin Sullivan killed by San Francisco, CA Police, 2006 Patricia Scott, son Raemawn Scott killed by Powder Spring, GA Police, 2003 Deborah Forge, son Keenen L. Forge killed by Dallas, TX Police, 2002

1999-1990

Marion Gray-Hopkins, son Gary Hopkins Jr. killed by Prince George County, MD Police, 1999 Dorothy Copp Elliot, mother Archie ‘Artie’ Elliot III, killed by District Heights and Prince George’s County, MD Police. 1993
Vicki & Sara Mokuria, father Tesfaie Mokuria killed by Dallas, TX Police, 1992

Civil Society Organizations, in alphabetical order:

  1. A Healing Paradigm
  2. Abolish Slavery National Network
  3. Access Now Adalah Justice Project
  4. Advocates for Human Rights Africa Solidarity Centre Ireland Africa World Now Project
  5. African and Indigenous Knowledge Institute
  6. African Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies
  7. African Development Plan
  8. Aging People in Prison Human Rights Campaign
  9. Agora International Human Rights Group
  10. Agrupación Xango
  11. Alaska Community Action on Toxics
  12. Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic, Yale Law School
  13. Alliance of Families for Justice American Civil Liberties Union
  14. American Friends Service Committee
  15. American Indian Movement, So Cal
  16. American Muslim Empowerment Network (AMEN)
  17. American University Washington College of Law, Center for Human Rights & Humanitarian Law
  18. American-Arab Anti- Discrimination Committee (ADC)
  19. Americans for Democracy & Human Rights in Bahrain
  20. Amnesty International
  21. Anti-Racism Education Scotland
  22. API Equality – LA Arizona Justice Alliance
  23. Art and Resistance Through Education (ARTE)
  24. Article 19
  25. Asian Pacific American Advocates (OCA – Greater Chicago Chapter)
  26. Association for Civil Rights in Israel
  27. Association Tunisienne de Soutien des Minorités
  28. Association Tunisienne des Femmes Démocrates
  29. AsylumConnect
  30. Australian Centre for International Justice
  31. Autistic Minority International
  32. Autistic Self Advocacy Network
  33. Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy (BIRD)
  34. Balanta B’urassa History and Genealogy Society in America
  35. Bell Global Justice Institute Best Practices Policy Project
  36. Black People Against Police Brutality
  37. Brain Injury Association of America
  38. Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies
  39. California Families United 4 Justice Network
  40. California Immigrant Policy Center
  41. Canadian Civil Liberties Association
  42. Casa San Jose, Pittsburgh PA
  43. Center for Civilians in Conflict
  44. Center for Constitutional Rights
  45. Center for International Environmental Law
  46. Center for Justice and Accountability
  47. Center for Policing Equity Center for Reproductive Rights Center for Victims of Torture
  48. Center on Race, Inequality, and the Law, NYU School of Law
  49. Central Arizona National Lawyers Guild
  50. Centre for Human Rights Law, SOAS University of London
  51. Centre for Human Rights, Birmingham City University
  52. Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria
  53. Centro de Derechos de Mujeres
  54. Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales (CELS)
  55. Check the Sheriff Coalition
  56. Chicago Anti-Eviction Campaign
  57. Church of the Brethren, Office of Peacebuilding and Policy
  58. Church World Service
  59. Citizens for Global Solutions Minnesota
  60. Coalition of African Lesbians
  61. Coalition Togolaise des Défenseurs des Droits Humains (CTDDH)
  62. Coalizão Negra por Direitos, Brazil
  63. Comisión Ecuménica de Derechos Humanos
  64. Commission Indépendante des Droits de l’Homme en Afrique du Nord
  65. Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI)
  66. Communist Party USA Conectas Direitos Humanos
  67. Congregation of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd, US Provinces
  68. Contra Nocendi International
  69. Coordination des Associations et des Particuliers pour la Liberté de Conscience
  70. Cornell Center on the Death Penalty Worldwide
  71. Cornell Gender Justice Clinic Cossart-Daly Law, A.P.C. Defending Rights & Dissent Dejusticia
  72. Drug Policy Alliance East Side Jews
  73. Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights
  74. EHD Advisory Empathy Surplus Project
  75. Foundation
  76. Empowered at Dusk Women’s Association
  77. Empowering Pacific Islander Communities (EPIC)
  78. Equal Justice Society Equality Now
  79. European Network Against Racism
  80. Eyes Right Veteran’s Foundation
  81. Families United 4 Justice Network
  82. Family Action Network Movement
  83. First Defense Legal Aid Four Freedoms Forum Friends of Human Rights Future Coalition
  84. The GAP Gyrlz and GAP Gyz Consortium of Human Rights Defenders
  85. GATE – Trans, Gender Diverse and Intersex Advocacy in Action
  86. Geneva for Human Rights – Global Training
  87. Global Health Justice Partnership of Yale Law and Public Health Schools, Yale University
  88. Global Human Rights Clinic, University of Chicago Law School
  89. Global Justice Center
  90. Global Justice Clinic, NYU Law School
  91. Global Network of Movement Lawyers
  92. Global Rights Advocacy
  93. Global Studies Association of North America
  94. The Global Union & GU- GHCF
  95. GoodWorks: North Alabama Harm Reduction
  96. Grassroots Alliance for Justice Grata Fund
  97. Green Amendments for The Generations
  98. Harm Reduction International Harriet’s Wildest Dreams
  99. Hawai’i Institute for Human Rights
  100. HEAL Trafficking
  101. Heartland Alliance International
  102. Hill District Consensus Group
  103. Horn Afrik News Agency for Human Rights (HANAHR)
  104. Human Rights Advocates
  105. Human Rights and Gender Justice Clinic, CUNY Law School
  106. Human Rights Bahamas
  107. Human Rights Campaign
  108. Human Rights Clinic, University of Miami School of Law
  109. Human Rights Education Associates (HREA)
  110. Human Rights Educators USA
  111. Human Rights Institute, San Jose State University
  112. Human Rights Law Centre Human Rights Law Network
  113. Human Rights Litigation and Advocacy Clinic at the University of Minnesota Law School
  114. Human Rights Watch Humanitaire Plus
  115. Hungarian Civil Liberties Union
  116. Implementation Team of the International Decade for People of African Descent-Spain
  117. Indian Law Resource Center
  118. Institute for Human Rights and Development in Africa
  119. Institute on Inequalities in Global Health, University of Southern California (USC)
  120. International Action Network for Gender Equity & Law (IANGEL)
  121. International Center for Advocates Against Discrimination (ICAAD)
  122. International Centre for Ethnic Studies
  123. International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH)
  124. International Human Rights Association of American Minorities (IHRAAM- UN/NGO)
  125. International Human Rights Clinic, Harvard Law School
  126. International Human Rights Clinic, USC Gould School of Law
  127. International Indigenous Youth Council
  128. International Institute on Race, Equality and Human Rights
  129. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA World)
  130. International Movement Against All Forms of Discrimination and Racism (IMADR)
  131. International Organization for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (EAFORD)
  132. International Service for Human Rights
  133. International Women’s Rights Action Watch Asia Pacific (IWRAW Asia Pacific)
  134. International Youth and Student Movement for the United Nations (ISMUN)
  135. International-Lawyers.Org Irish Council for Civil Liberties JLS International Law Project
  136. Jump at the Sun Consultants, LLC
  137. Justice Revival Juvenile Law Center Karapatan
  138. Kent State Truth Tribunal
  139. Lawyers’ Rights Watch Canada
  140. The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights
  141. League of Women Voters of the United States
  142. Legal Resources Centre
  143. Leitner Center for International Law and Justice at Fordham Law School
  144. Lesbian and Gay Federation in Germany (LSVD)
  145. Liberty
  146. Love Not Blood Campaign Many Voices
  147. Me Too Survivors March International
  148. Medical Whistleblower Advocacy Network
  149. Migrant and Immigrant Community Action Project
  150. Milwaukee County Human Rights Commission
  151. Minneapolis Commission on Civil Rights
  152. Minority Rights Group International (MRG)
  153. Monitoring Committee on Attacks on Lawyers, International Association of People’s Lawyers
  154. Most Influential People of African Descent (MIPAD)
  155. Mothers Against Police Brutality (MAPB)
  156. Namibia Diverse Women’s Association
  157. National Advocacy Center of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd
  158. National Alliance Against Racist and Political Repression
  159. National Birth Equity Collaborative
  160. National Black Agenda Consortium
  161. National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N’Cobra)
  162. National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA
  163. National Council on Independent Living
  164. National Equality Action Team (NEAT)
  165. National Health Care for the Homeless Council
  166. National Homelessness Law Center
  167. National Working Positive Coalition
  168. New Afrikan People’s Organization/Malcolm X Grassroots Movement
  169. New Future Foundation, Inc.
  170. North River Law PLLC
  171. Office of HBCU Development & International Cooperation, Inc
  172. OneAmerica OutRight Action International
  173. Parable of the Sower Intentional Community Cooperative
  174. Parity Partnership for Justice
  175. Passionist Solidarity Network Pax Christi USA
  176. Phoenix Transition Program
  177. Physicians for a National Health Program, NY Metro Chapter
  178. Pittsburgh Human Rights City Alliance
  179. Planet Ally Pretrial Justice Institute
  180. Progressive Doctors
  181. Promise Institute for Human Rights, UCLA Law
  182. Promoting Empowerment Through Awareness for Lesbian/Bisexual Women (PETAL)
  183. Public Advocacy for Kids (PAK)
  184. Public Justice Center
  185. Rede Nacional de Mães e Familiares de Vítimas do Terrorismo do Estado
  186. REDRESS
  187. Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights
  188. Samuel DeWitt Proctor Conferernce
  189. San Francisco Bay Physicians for Social Responsibility
  190. Santa Clara Law – International Human Rights Clinic
  191. Seattle/King County Coalition on Homelessness
  192. SEIU Healthcare IL
  193. The Sex Workers Project of the Urban Justice Center
  194. Shirkat Gah – Women’s Resource Centre
  195. SISTA Fire
  196. Sisters Health & Wellness Collective
  197. Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
  198. South Austin Coalition Southern Anti-Racism Network Southern Poverty Law Center Southwest Native Cultures StoptheDrugWar.org
  199. Strategies for Development
  200. Swaziland Migrant Mineworkers Association (SWAMMIWA)
  201. The Taifa Group Talking Drum Incorporated
  202. Te Rau Ora
  203. Thurgood Marshall Civil Rights Center at Howard University School of Law
  204. Tools4Democracy!
  205. TRANScending Barriers Atlanta
  206. The TransLatin@ Coalition Trinity United Church of Christ The TRY CENTER, Inc
  207. The Ubuntu Centre Uneafro Brasil
  208. UNESCO Inclusive Policy Lab- People of African Descent
  209. and the SDGs E-Team
  210. Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Montgomery
  211. United Belize Advocacy Movement
  212. United Nations Association of the USA
  213. United Nations Association, Northern New Jersey Chapter
  214. Universal Human Rights Defenders Coalition
  215. University Network for Human Rights
  216. Urgent Action Fund for Women’s Human Rights
  217. US Human Rights Cities Alliance
  218. US Human Rights Network
  219. Vermont Network Against Domestic and Sexual Violence
  220. Washington Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights and Urban Affairs
  221. Waves Ahead Corp, Puerto Rico
  222. The Well Project Westside Justice Center WITNESS
  223. Women Human Rights Defender, Middle East and North Africa Coalition (WHRD-MENA)
  224. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
  225. Women’s All Points Bulletin (WAPB)
  226. Woodhull Freedom Foundation
  227. World Against Racism Network (WARN)
  228. World Council of Churches
  229. World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT)
  230. World Without Genocide at Mitchell Hamline School of Law
  231. Yemeni Institute for Strategic Affairs

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